# SQL commands supported by GridDB

Supported SQL commands are in the table as follows.

Command Overview
CREATE DATABASE Create a database.
CREATE TABLE Create a table.
CREATE INDEX Create an index.
CREATE VIEW Create a view.
CREATE USER Create a general user.
DROP DATABASE Delete a database.
DROP TABLE Delete a table.
DROP INDEX Delete an index.
DROP VIEW Delete a view.
DROP USER Delete a general user.
ALTER TABLE Change the structure of a table.
GRANT Assign database access rights to a general user.
REVOKE Revoke database access rights from a general user.
SET PASSWORD Change the password of a general user.
SELECT Select data.
INSERT Insert rows into a table.
DELETE Delete rows from a table.
UPDATE Update rows in a table.
Comment Add a comment.
Hints Control an execution plan.

An explanation for each category of SQL command is given in this chapter.

# Data definition language (DDL)

# CREATE DATABASE

Create a database.

Syntax

CREATE DATABASE database_name;

Specifications

  • Can be executed by an administrator user only.
  • Databases with the same name as "public", "information_schema" cannot be created as these are reserved for internal use in GridDB.
  • Nothing will be changed if a database with the same name already exists.
  • See "GridDB Features Reference" (GridDB_FeaturesReference) for the rules of a database name.

# CREATE TABLE

# Creating a table

Create a table.

Syntax

  • Table (collection)
CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table name (column definition [, column definition ...] [, PRIMARY KEY (column name [, ...])])
[WITH (property key = property value)];
  • Timeseries table (timeseries container)
CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name ( column_name TIMESTAMP PRIMARY KEY [, column definition ...] )
USING TIMESERIES [WITH (property_key=property_value [, property_key=property_value ...])];
  • column definition

    • column_name data_type [ column_constraint ]
  • column_constraint

    • PRIMARY KEY (only the 1st column can be specified)
    • NULL
    • NOT NULL

Specifications

  • See "GridDB Features Reference (GridDB_FeaturesReference) for the rule of a table name and a column name.

  • If "IF NOT EXISTS" is specified, the specified table can be created only if another table with the same name does not exist.

  • The column name and data type name need to be specified in column definition. See Data types used in data storage for the data types that can be specified.

  • Composite primary key can be set to a table (collection) by setting the primary key after describing the column definition. The composite primary key must be set to the columns which are continuous from the first column and can be set up to 16 columns. It cannot be set together with the PRIMARY KEY as a column constraint, cannot be set to a time series table (time series container).

  • See "GridDB Features Reference" (GridDB_FeaturesReference) for details of time series table (Time series container).

  • Options related to data affinity can be specified in the format "WITH (property key = property value, ...)".

    Function Item Property key Property value type
    Data affinity (Character string indicating similarity between containers) data_affinity STRING
  • For time series tables, options about expiry release can be specified by the format " WITH (property_key=property_value, ...)".

Function Item Property key Property value type Required or optional when setting expiry release
Expiry release function Type expiration_type STRING
(Any of the followings. ROW: Row expiry release)
Required
Elapsed time expiration_time INTEGER Required
Elapsed time unit expiration_time_unit STRING
(Any of the followings. DAY / HOUR / MINUTE / SECOND / MILLISECOND )
Optional (default: DAY).
Division count expiration_division_count INTEGER Optional (default: 8).

Examples

  • Creating a table

    CREATE TABLE myTable (
      key INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
      value1 DOUBLE NOT NULL,
      value2 DOUBLE NOT NULL
    );
    
  • Creating timeseries table using the row expiry release function

    CREATE TABLE myTimeseries (
      mycolumn1 TIMESTAMP PRIMARY KEY,
      mycolumn2 STRING
    ) USING TIMESERIES WITH (
      expiration_type='ROW',
      expiration_time=10,
      expiration_time_unit='DAY'
    );
    

# Creating a partitioned table

Creating a partitioned table

See "GridDB Features Reference" (GridDB_FeaturesReference) for details of each partitioning function.

(1) Creating a hash partitioned table

Syntax

  • Table (collection)
CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name ( column definition [, column definition ...] [, PRIMARY KEY(column name [, ...])] )
[WITH (property_key=property_value)]
PARTITION BY HASH (column_name_of_partitioning_key) PARTITIONS division count;
  • Timeseries table (timeseries container)
CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name ( column definition [, column definition ...])
USING TIMESERIES [WITH property_key=property_value, ...)]]
PARTITION BY HASH (column_name_of_partitioning_key) PARTITIONS division count;

Specifications

  • Create a hash partitioned table usng the column name of the partitioning key and the value of division count.
  • Specify the value from 1 to 1024 for "division_count".
  • The partitioning key requires the primary key. To set a key other than the primary key, the restriction in the configuration file need to be removed. For details, refer to the cluster definition file settings in GridDB Features Reference (GridDB_FeaturesReference).
  • The column specified as partitioning key cannot be updated.
  • Options related to data affinity can be specified in the format "WITH (property key = property value, ...)". The options that can be specified are same as normal table.
  • For time series tables, options about expiry release can be specified by the format " WITH (property_key=property_value, ...)". The options that can be specified are same as normal table.

Examples

  • Creating a hash partitioned table

    CREATE TABLE myHashPartition (
      id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
      value STRING
    ) PARTITION BY HASH (id) PARTITIONS 128;
    

(2) Creating an interval partitioned table

Syntax

  • Table (collection)
CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name ( column definition [, column definition ...] [, PRIMARY KEY(column name [, ...])])
[WITH (property_key=property_value, ...)]
PARTITION BY RANGE(column_name_of_partitioning_key) EVERY(interval_value [, interval_unit ]);
  • Timeseries table (timeseries container)
CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name ( column definition [, column definition ...] USING TIMESERIES)])
[WITH (property_key=property_value, ...)]
PARTITION BY RANGE(column_name_of_partitioning_key) EVERY(interval_value [, interval_unit ]);

Specifications

  • Specify the column which type is BYTE, SHORT, INTEGER, LONG or TIMESTAMP for "column_name_of_partitioning_key".

  • The partitioning key requires the primary key. To set a key other than the primary key, the restriction in the configuration file need to be removed. For details, refer to the cluster definition file settings in GridDB Features Reference (GridDB_FeaturesReference).

  • The column specified as partitioning key cannot be updated.

  • The following values can be specified as the "interval_value".

    Partitioning key type Possible interval value
    BYTE from 1 to 27-1
    SHORT from 1 to 215-1
    INTEGER from 1 to 231-1
    LONG from 1000 to 263-1
    TIMESTAMP 1 or more
  • If the column of TIMESTAMP is specified, it is also required to specify the interval unit. DAY is the only value that can be specified as the interval unit.

  • The interval unit cannot be specified for any types other than TIMESTAMP.

  • Options related to data affinity can be specified in the format "WITH (property key = property value, ...)". The options that can be specified are same as normal table.

  • The options about expiry release can be specified by the format "WITH (property_key=property_value, ...)". The options that can be specified are same as those of regular tables, except for the expiration_type which has the following specifications.

Function Item Property key Property value type Required or optional when setting expiry release
Expiry release function Type expiration_type STRING
(Any of the followings. If omitted, PARTITION.
PARTITION: Partition expiry release
ROW: Row expiry release)
Optional
  • The row expiry release can only be specified for timeseries table (timeseries container).
  • The partition expiry release can only be specified for followings:
    • Timeseries table (timeseries container)
    • Table (collection) whose partitioning key is TIMESTAMP type.
  • See "GridDB Features Reference" (GridDB_FeaturesReference) for the details of each item.

Examples

  • Creating an interval partitioned table.

    CREATE TABLE myIntervalPartition (
      date TIMESTAMP PRIMARY KEY,
      value STRING
    ) PARTITION BY RANGE (date) EVERY (30, DAY);
    
  • Creating an interval partitioned table (timeseries table) using the partition expiry release function.

    CREATE TABLE myIntervalPartition2 (
      date TIMESTAMP PRIMARY KEY,
      value STRING
    ) USING TIMESERIES WITH (
      expiration_type='PARTITION',
      expiration_time=90,
      expiration_time_unit='DAY'
    ) PARTITION BY RANGE (date) EVERY (30, DAY);
    

(3) Creating an interval hash partitioned table

Syntax

  • Table (collection)
CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name ( column definition [, column definition ...] [, PRIMARY KEY(column name [, ...])] )
[WITH (property_key=property_value, ...)]
PARTITION BY RANGE(column_name_of_interval_partitioning_key) EVERY(interval_value [, interval_unit ])
SUBPARTITION BY HASH(column_name_of_hash_partitioning_key) SUBPARTITIONS division_count;
  • Timeseries table (timeseries container)
CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name ( column definition [, column definition ...] )
USING TIMESERIES [WITH (property_key=property_value, ...)]
PARTITION BY RANGE(column_name_of_interval_partitioning_key) EVERY(interval_value [, interval_unit ])
SUBPARTITION BY HASH(column_name_of_hash_partitioning_key) SUBPARTITIONS division_count;

Specifications

  • Specify the column which type is BYTE, SHORT, INTEGER, LONG or TIMESTAMP for "column_name_of_interval_partitioning_key".

  • The following values can be specified as the "interval_value".

    Partitioning key type Possible interval value
    BYTE from 1 to 27-1
    SHORT from 1 to 215-1
    INTEGER from 1 to 231-1
    LONG from 1000 * division_count to -263-1
    TIMESTAMP 1 or more
    • If the column of TIMESTAMP is specified, it is also required to specify the interval unit. DAY is the only value that can be specified as the interval unit.
    • The interval unit cannot be specified for any types other than TIMESTAMP.
  • Specify the value from 1 to 1024 for "division_count".

  • The partitioning key requires the primary key. To set a key other than the primary key, the restriction in the configuration file need to be removed. For details, refer to the cluster definition file settings in GridDB Features Reference (GridDB_FeaturesReference).

  • The column specified as partitioning key cannot be updated.

  • Options related to data affinity can be specified in the format "WITH (property key = property value, ...)". The options that can be specified are same as normal table.

  • The options about expiry release can be specified by the format "WITH (property_key=property_value, ...)". The options that can be specified are same as those of regular tables, except for the expiration_type which has the following specifications.

Function Item Property key Property value type Required or optional when setting expiry release
Expiry release function Type expiration_type STRING
(Any of the followings. If omitted, PARTITION.
PARTITION: Partition expiry release
ROW: Row expiry release)
Optional

Examples

  • Creating an interval-hash partitioned table

    CREATE TABLE myIntervalHashPartition (
      date TIMESTAMP,
      value STRING,
      PRIMARY KEY (date, value)
    ) PARTITION BY RANGE (date) EVERY (60, DAY)
    SUBPARTITION BY HASH (value) SUBPARTITIONS 64;
    
  • Creating an interval-hash partitioned table (timeseries table) using the partition expiry release function.

    CREATE TABLE myIntervalHashPartition2 (
      date TIMESTAMP PRIMARY KEY,
      value STRING
    ) USING TIMESERIES WITH (
      expiration_type='PARTITION',
      expiration_time=90,
      expiration_time_unit='DAY'
    ) PARTITION BY RANGE (date) EVERY (60, DAY)
    SUBPARTITION BY HASH (date) SUBPARTITIONS 64;
    

# CREATE INDEX

Create an index.

Syntax

CREATE INDEX [IF NOT EXISTS] index_name ON table_name ( column_name_to_be_indexed );

Specifications

  • See "GridDB Features Reference" (GridDB_FeaturesReference) for the rules of an index name.
  • For a table, an index with the same name as an existing index in the table cannot be created.
  • If a transaction under execution exists in a table subject to processing, the system will wait for these to be completed before creating the data.
  • An index cannot be created on a column of BLOB type and ARRAY type.
  • Up to 16 columns can be indexed.
  • Time series table does not allow a primary key in a composite index.

# CREATE VIEW

Create a view.

Syntax

CREATE [FORCE] VIEW view_name AS SELECT statement;

Specifications

  • See "GridDB Features Reference" (GridDB_FeaturesReference) for the rules of a view name.
  • Whether the result from the SELECT statement is available or not is checked. If the result is not available, a view cannot be created.
  • When FORCE is specified, the result from the SELECT statement is not checked, while a syntactic check is done.
  • The SELECT statement can include other view names. If other view names in the SELECT statement cause circular reference, the view cannot be created even if FORCE is specified.

# CREATE USER

Create a general user.

Syntax

CREATE USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY 'password_string' ;

Specifications

  • See "GridDB Features Reference" (GridDB_FeaturesReference) for the rules of a user name.
  • Can be executed by an administrator user only.
  • A user with the same name as an administrator user (admin and system) registered during installation cannot be created.
  • Only ASCII characters can be used in the password string. The password is case-sensitive.

# DROP DATABASE

Delete a database.

Syntax

DROP DATABASE database_name;

Specifications

  • Can be executed by an administrator user only.
  • The database with the following names are reserved for internal use and thus cannot be deleted: "public", "information_schema", and any names starting with "gs#".
  • A database containing tables created by a user cannot be deleted.

# DROP TABLE

Delete a table.

Syntax

DROP TABLE [IF EXISTS] table_name;

Specifications

  • If "IF EXISTS" is specified, nothing will change if no table with the specified name exists.
  • If there is an active transaction involving the table, the table will be deleted only after the transaction is completed.

# DROP INDEX

Delete the specified index.

Syntax

DROP INDEX [IF EXISTS] index_name ON table_name;

Specifications

  • If "IF EXISTS" is specified, nothing will change if no index with the specified name exists.
  • If there is an active transaction involving the table, the table will be deleted only after the transaction is completed.
  • The unnamed index creating through NoSQL I/F can not be deleted by "DROP INDEX".

# DROP VIEW

Delete a view.

Syntax

DROP VIEW [IF EXISTS] view name ;

Specifications

  • If "IF EXISTS" is specified, nothing will be changed if a view with the specified name does not exist.

# DROP USER

Delete a general user.

Syntax

DROP USER user_name;

Specifications

  • Can be executed by an administrator user only.

# ALTER TABLE

Change the structure of a table.

# Adding columns to a table

Add columns to the end of the table.

Syntax

ALTER TABLE table_name ADD [COLUMN] column definition [,ADD [COLUMN] column definition ...];
  • column definition

    • column_name data_type [ column_constraint ]
  • column_constraint

    • NULL
    • NOT NULL

Specifications

  • The added column is located in the end of the table. If multiple columns are specified, they are located in their order.
  • PRIMARY KEY can not be specified to the column constraint.
  • If the same name column exists, an error occurs.

Examples

  • Adding multiple columns to the table

    ALTER TABLE myTable1
      ADD COLUMN col111 STRING NOT NULL,
      ADD COLUMN col112 INTEGER;
    

# Deleting data partitions

Delete data partitions created by table partitioning.

Syntax

ALTER TABLE table_name DROP PARTITION FOR ( value_included_in_the_data_partition );

Specifications

  • Data partitions can be deleted only for interval and interval-hash partitioning.
  • Specify the value included in the data partition to be deleted.
  • Data in the range of the once deleted data partition (from the lower limit value to the upper limit value of the data partition) cannot be registered.
  • The lower limit value of a data partition can be checked by metatable. In many cases, the upper limit of a data partition is the lower limit value plus division width value.
  • For interval-hash partitioned tables, there are multiple data partitions which have the same lower limit value, and the maximum number of those partitions is equal to the hash division count. Those data partitions are deleted simultaneously. Deleted partitions are checked by metatable.

See Metatables for the details on the metatable.

Examples

Interval partitioned table

  • Check the lower limit value of the interval partitioned table "myIntervalPartition1" (partitioning key type: TIMESTAMP, interval: 30 DAY)

    SELECT PARTITION_BOUNDARY_VALUE FROM "#table_partitions"
    WHERE TABLE_NAME='myIntervalPartition1' ORDER BY PARTITION_BOUNDARY_VALUE;
    PARTITION_BOUNDARY_VALUE
    -----------------------------------
     2017-01-10T13:00:00.000Z
     2017-02-09T13:00:00.000Z
     2017-03-11T13:00:00.000Z
           :
    
  • Delete unnecessary data partitions

    ALTER TABLE myIntervalPartition1 DROP PARTITION FOR ('2017-01-10T13:00:00Z');
    

Interval hash partitioned table

  • Check the lower limit value of each data partitions on the interval hash partitioned table "myIntervalHashPartition" (partitioning key type: TIMESTAMP, interval value: 90 DAY, division count 3)

    SELECT PARTITION_BOUNDARY_VALUE FROM "#table_partitions"
    WHERE TABLE_NAME='myIntervalHashPartition' ORDER BY PARTITION_BOUNDARY_VALUE;
    PARTITION_BOUNDARY_VALUE
    -----------------------------------
    2016-08-01T10:00:00.000Z  The data of the same lower limit is hashed and
    2016-08-01T10:00:00.000Z  is divided into three data partitions.
    2016-08-01T10:00:00.000Z
    2016-10-30T10:00:00.000Z
    2016-10-30T10:00:00.000Z
    2016-10-30T10:00:00.000Z
    2017-01-29T10:00:00.000Z
           :
    
  • Delete unnecessary data partitions

    ALTER TABLE myIntervalHashPartition DROP PARTITION FOR ('2016-09-15T10:00:00Z');
    
  • Data partitions that have same boundary value will be deleted

    SELECT PARTITION_BOUNDARY_VALUE FROM "#table_partitions"
    WHERE TABLE_NAME='myIntervalHashPartition' ORDER BY PARTITION_BOUNDARY_VALUE;
    PARTITION_BOUNDARY_VALUE
    -----------------------------------
    2016-10-30T10:00:00.000Z    For the section (lower limit '2016-08-01T10: 00: 00Z') including '2016-09-15T10: 00: 00Z'
    2016-10-30T10:00:00.000Z    three data partitions are deleted.
    2016-10-30T10:00:00.000Z
    2017-01-29T10:00:00.000Z
           :
    

# Data control language (DCL)

# GRANT

Assign database access rights to a general user.

Syntax

GRANT {SELECT

Specifications

  • Can be executed by an administrator user only.
  • SELECT indicates reference authority and ALL indicates reference authority and update authority.

# REVOKE

Revoke database access rights from a general user.

Syntax

REVOKE {SELECT

Specifications

  • Can be executed by an administrator user only.
  • SELECT indicates reference authority and ALL indicates reference authority and update authority.

# SET PASSWORD

Change the password of a general user.

Syntax

SET PASSWORD [FOR user_name ] = 'password_string';

Specifications

  • An administrator user can change the passwords of all general users.
  • A general user can change its own password only.

# Data management language (DML)

# SELECT

Select data. Made up of a variety of Clauses such as FROM, WHERE, etc.

Syntax

SELECT [{ALL

# INSERT

Register rows in a table. INSERT only registers rows, while INSERT OR REPLACE and REPLACE overwrite the existing data, when the data with the same primary key as that of the existing data is given. REPLACE is an alias of INSERT OR REPLACE and they are the same in their functions.

Syntax

{INSERT

Specifications

  • If a SELECT statement is specified instead of VALUES, the execution result will be registered.
INSERT INTO myTable1 VALUES(1, 100);
REPLACE INTO myTable1 VALUES(1, 200);
INSERT INTO myTable1 SELECT * FROM myTable2;

# DELETE

Delete rows from a table.

Syntax

DELETE FROM table_name [ WHERE clause ];

# UPDATE

Update the rows existing in a table.

Syntax

UPDATE table_name SET column_name_1 = expression_1 [, column_name_2 = expression_2 ...] [ WHERE clause ];

Specifications

  • The value of the PRIMARY KEY column can not be updated.

  • For a partitioned table, a column , set as a partitioning key, can not be updated to a different value using the UPDATE statement. In such a case, INSERT after DELETE.

    • Example:
      CREATE TABLE tab (a INTEGER, b STRING) PARTITION BY HASH a PARTITIONS 5;
      -- NG
      UPDATE tab SET a = a * 2;
      [240016:SQL_COMPILE_PARTITIONING_KEY_NOT_UPDATABLE] Partitioning column='a' is not updatable
      -- OK
      UPDATE tab SET b = 'XXX';
      
  • A column name specified with SET cannot be qualified with a table name.

    • Example:
      CREATE TABLE myTable1 (key INTEGER, value INTEGER);
      -- NG
      UPDATE myTable1 SET myTable1.value = 999 WHERE myTable1.key = 8;
      -- OK
      UPDATE myTable1 SET value = 999 WHERE myTable1.key = 8;
      
  • Subqueries cannot be used for update values, while it can be used for conditional statements such as WHERE.

    • Example:
      CREATE TABLE myTable1 (key INTEGER, value INTEGER);
      -- NG
      UPDATE myTable1 SET value = (SELECT 999) WHERE key = 8;
      -- OK
      UPDATE myTable1 SET value = 999 WHERE key = (SELECT 8);
      

# Clauses

# FROM

Specify the table name, view name, and subquery on which to execute data operations.

Syntax

FROM table_name_1 [, table_name_2 ... ]
FROM (sub_query) [AS] Alias [, ...]

Specifications

  • A sub query must be enclosed with () and requires an alias.

Example:

SELECT a.ID, b.ID FROM mytable a, (SELECT ID FROM mytable2) b;
ID     ID
---+-----
 1    100
 1    200
 2    100
 2    200
   :

# GROUP BY

Among the results of the clauses specified earlier, rows having the same value in the specified column will be grouped together.

Syntax

GROUP BY column_name_1 [, column_name_2 ...]

# HAVING

Perform filtering using the search condition on data grouped by the GROUP BY clause. GROUP BY clause cannot be omitted.

Syntax

HAVING search_conditions

# ORDER BY

Sort search results.

ORDER BY column_name_1 [{ASC

# WHERE

Apply a search condition on the result of the preceding FROM clause.

Syntax

WHERE search_conditions

Specifications

  • Search conditions can be described using an expression, a function, a subquery, etc.

# LIMIT/OFFSET

Extract the specified number of data from the specified location.

Syntax

LIMIT value_1 [OFFSET value_2 ]

Specifications

  • Value_1 represents the number of data to extract while value_2 represents the position of the data to extract.

# JOIN

Join a table.

Syntax

Type of join Syntax
Inner join Table 1 [INNER] JOIN table 2 [ON condition
Left outer join Table 1 LEFT [OUTER] JOIN table 2 [ON type
Cross join Table 1 CROSS JOIN table 2 [ON condition
  • Inner join returns records that have matching values in both tables in the specified row.
  • Left outer join returns records that have matching values in both tables in the specified row, as well as the records only exist in the table 1.
  • A cross join is equivalent to an inner join (INNER JOIN).

Specify join conditions with ON or USING.

Example:

name: employees
 id   first_name   department_id
----+------------+----------------
  0   John         0
  1   William      1
  2   Richard      0
  3   Mary         4
  4   Lisa         3
  5   James        1
name: departments
 id   department   
----+------------
  0   Sales
  1   Development
  2   Research
  3   Marketing
○Inner join
SELECT * FROM employees e INNER JOIN departments d ON e.department_id=d.department_id;
 id    first_name  department_id  department_id  department
------+-----------+--------------+--------------+-----------
  0    John         0              0             Sales
  1    William      1              1             Development
  2    Richard      0              0             Sales
  4    Lisa         3              3             Marketing
  5    James        1              1             Development
○Left outer join
SELECT * FROM employees e LEFT JOIN departments d  ON e.department_id=d.department_id;
 id    first_name  department_id  department_id  department
------+-----------+--------------+--------------+-----------
  0    John         0              0             Sales
  1    William      1              1             Development
  2    Richard      0              0             Sales
  3    Mary         4              (NULL)        (NULL)
  4    Lisa         3              3             Marketing
  5    James        1              1             Development

Natural join (NATURAL JOIN) joins tables that have matching values in the rows under the same name.

Type of join Syntax
Inner join Table 1 NATURAL [INNER] JOIN table 2
Left outer join Table 1 NATURAL LEFT [OUTER] JOIN table 2
Cross join Table 1 NATURAL CROSS JOIN table 2
SELECT * FROM employees NATURAL INNER JOIN departments;
 department_id   id    first_name     department
---------------+-----+--------------+--------------
  0              0     John           Sales
  1              1     William        Development
  0              2     Richard        Sales
  3              4     Lisa           Marketing
  1              5     James          Development

# UNION/INTERSECT/EXCEPT

Calculate on a set of two query results.

Syntax

Inquiry 1 UNION inquiry 2 Returns all the results of two queries. (duplication is not included)
Query 1 UNION ALL query 2 Returns all the results of two queries. (duplication is included)
Query 1 INTERSECT query 2 Returns the results common to the results of two queries.
Query 1 EXCEPT query 2 Returns the difference of two queries (result included in the query 1, not in the query 2).

# OVER

Split and sort query results. Use with a WINDOW function.

Syntax

Function OVER ([PARTITION BY expression 1] [ORDER BY expression 2])

Specifications

  • Can be used in the SELECT clause.
  • The corresponding functions are:
    • ROW_NUMBER()
  • Split the query result with PARTITION BY clause. Sort rows by ORDER BY clause.
  • Multiple use of the WINDOW function/OVER clause in the same SELECT clause, and simultaneous use of the WINDOW function/OVER clause and the MEDIAN function are not allowed.
  • The following expressions cannot be specified in the PARTITION BY clause.
    • Expression containing OVER clause
    • Expression containing aggregate function
    • Expression containing column aliases
    • Subquery
  • The following expressions cannot be specified in the ORDER BY clause.
    • Expression containing OVER clause
    • Expression containing aggregate function
    • Expression containing column aliases
    • Subquery

# Operator

This section explains the operators used in SQL statements.

# List of Operators

The list of operators is as follows.

Class Operator Description
Arithmetic + Add
- Substract
* Multiply
/ Divide
% Modulo
Character
Compare =, == Compare whether both sides are equal.
!=, <> Compare whether both sides are not equal.
> Compare whether the left side is larger than the right side.
>= Compare whether the left side is larger than or equal to the right one.
< Compare whether the left side is smaller than the right side.
<= Compare whether the left side is smaller than or equal to the right side.
IS Compare whether both sides are equal.
Return true, when both sides are NULLs.
Return false, when either side is NULL.
IS NOT Compare whether both sides are not equal.
Return false, when both sides are NULLs.
Return true, when either side is NULL.
ISNULL Determine whether the left side is NULL.
NOTNULL Determine whether the left side is not NULL.
LIKE Search the character string on the right.
GLOB Search the character string on the right.
BETWEEN Extract values of the specified range.
IN Return whether the specified value is included in the set of values.
Bit & A & B :Bitwise AND of A and B
~ ~A : Bitwise NOT of A
<< A << B :Shift A to the left by B bit.
>> A >> B :Shift A to the right by B bit.
Logic AND Return true, when both sides are true.
Return false, when either side is false.
Otherwise return NULL.
OR Return true, when the expression on either side is true.
Return false, when the expressions on both sides are false.
Otherwise return NULL.
NOT Return false, when the expression on the right is true.
Return true, when the expression on the right is false.

# LIKE

Search the character string on the right.

# Syntax

str [NOT] LIKE pattern_str [ESCAPE escape_str ]

# Specifications

# GLOB

# Syntax

Search the character string on the right.

str GLOB pattern_str

Specifications

# BETWEEN

Extract values of the specified range.

Syntax

expression_1 [NOT] BETWEEN expression_2 AND expression_3

Specifications

  • Return true if the following conditions are met

    expression_2 &lt;= expression_1 &lt;= expression_3
    
  • Return true if the following conditions are not met when NOT is specified.

# IN

Return whether the specified value is included in the set of values.

Syntax

expression_1 [NOT] IN ( expression_2 [, expression_3 ...] )

Specifications

  • Return true when the value of expression_1 is included in the result of expression_N.
  • IN can be used in a sub query.

# Functions

This section explains the functions used in SQL statements.

# List of Functions

The following functions are available for SQL statements.

Class Function name Description
Aggregation AVG Return the average value.
COUNT Return the number of rows.
MAX Return the maximum.
MIN Return the minimum.
SUM Return a sum of values.
TOTAL Return a sum of values.
GROUP_CONCAT Connect values.
STDDEV_SAMP Returns the sample standard deviation
STDDEV Returns the sample standard deviation
STDDEV0 Returns the sample standard deviation
STDDEV_POP Returns the population standard deviation
VAR_SAMP Returns the sample variance
VARIANCE Returns the sample variance
VARIANCE0 Returns the sample variance
VAR_POP Returns the population variance
MEDIAN Returns the median
Arithmetic ABS Return an absolute value.
ROUND Round off.
RANDOM Return a random number.
MAX Return the maximum.
MIN Return the minimum.
LOG Return the logarithm.
SQRT Return the square root.
TRUNC Round down numbers.
HEX_TO_DEC Converts a hexadecimal string to a decimal number
Character LENGTH Return the length of a character string.
LOWER Convert a character string to a lowercase.
UPPER Convert a character string to an uppercase.
SUBSTR Cut out part of a character string.
REPLACE Replace a character string.
INSTR Return the position of a specified character string in a character string.
LIKE Search a character string.
GLOB Search a character string.
TRIM Remove a specified character(s) from the both ends of a character string.
LTRIM Remove a specified character(s) from the left end of a character string.
RTRIM Remove a specified character(s) from the right end of a character string.
QUOTE Enclose a character string with single quotes.
UNICODE Return the Unicode code point of a character.
CHAR A Unicode code point is converted to characters and connected.
PRINTF Return the converted character string
TRANSLATE Replace a character string.
Time NOW Return the present time.
TIMESTAMP Convert the string representation of time to TIMESTAMP type.
TIMESTAMP_ADD Add a duration to a time.
TIMESTAMP_DIFF Return the difference of times.
TO_TIMESTAMP_MS Add lapsed time to the time point '1970-01-01T00:00:00.000Z'.
TO_EPOCH_MS Return the lapsed time from the time point '1970-01-01T00:00:00.000Z'.
EXTRACT Take out the value of the specific field from time.
STRFTIME Return a character string with the time converted.
MAKE_TIMESTAMP Generate time.
TIMESTAMP_TRUNC Truncate time.
WINDOW ROW_NUMBER Assign a unique sequential value to the resulting Row
Other COALESCE Return the first argument that is not NULL.
IFNULL Return the first argument that is not NULL.
NULLIF Return NULL when two arguments are the same, return the first argument when the arguments are different.
RANDOMBLOB Return a BLOB type value (random number).
ZEROBLOB Return a BLOB type value (0x00).
HEX Convert a BLOB type value to a hexadecimal type.
TYPEOF Return the data type of a value.

These functions are described using the data in the following table as an example.

table: employees
 id   first_name   last_name   age     department    enrollment_period
----+------------+-----------+-------+-------------+-------------------
  0   John         Smith       43      Sales         15.5
  1   William      Jones       59      Development   23.2
  2   Richard      Brown       (NULL)  Sales          7.0
  3   Mary         Taylor      31      Research      (NULL)
  4   Lisa         (NULL)      29      (NULL)         4.9
  5   James        Smith       43      Development   10.3
table: departments
 id   department   
----+------------
  0   Sales
  1   Development
  2   Research

[Notice]

  • NULL value is expressed as (NULL).

# Aggregate functions

Functions to aggregate values DISTINCT or ALL can be specified as the argument of an aggregate function.

Format function( [DISTINCT | ALL] argument)
Point Meaning
DISTINCT Rows of duplicate values are excluded and aggregated.
ALL All the rows including the duplicate values are aggregated.

When no argument is specified, the resut will be the same as ALL is specified.

[Notice]

  • An aggregate function can be used only for a SELECT phrase.
  • If there are no rows to be calculated, the result of COUNT is 0. Other aggregate functions result in NULL.

# AVG

Format AVG( [DISTINCT | ALL] n)

Return the average value of n.

  • Specify a numeric value as the argument n.
  • Rows with n of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • The result is of a DOUBLE type.

Example:

SELECT AVG(age) FROM employees;
Result: 41.0
SELECT AVG(DISTINCT age) FROM employees;
Result: 40.5
SELECT department, AVG(age) avg FROM employees GROUP BY department;
Result: 
  department   avg
  ------------+-----
  Development  51.0
  Research     31.0
  Sales        43.0
  (NULL)       29.0

# COUNT

Format COUNT( [DISTINCT | ALL] x)

Return the number of rows.

  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation. They are not included in the number of rows.
  • The result is of a LONG type.

Example:

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM employees;
Result: 6
// Count the rows ignoring the ones with NULL value.
SELECT COUNT(department) FROM employees;
Result: 5
SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT department) FROM employees;
Result: 3

# MAX

Format MAX( [DISTINCT | ALL] x)

Return the maximum.

  • Specify the value of arbitrary types as the argument x.
    • For the argument of character string type, the character string started with the largest character code is returned.
    • For the argument of TIMESTAMP type, return the newest time.
  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • The type of the result is the same as that of the argument x.

Example:

SELECT MAX(age) FROM employees;
Result: 59
SELECT MAX(first_name) FROM employees;
Result: William

# MIN

format MIN( [DISTINCT | ALL] x)

Return the minimum.

  • Specify the value of arbitrary types as the argument x.
    • For the argument of character string type, the character string started with the smallest character code is returned.
    • For the argument of TIMESTAMP type, return the oldest time.
  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • The type of the result is the same as that of the argument x.

Example:

SELECT MIN(age) FROM employees;
Result: 29
SELECT MIN(first_name) FROM employees;
Result: James

# SUM/TOTAL

Format SUM( [DISTINCT | ALL] n)
Format TOTAL( [DISTINCT | ALL] n)

Return a sum of values.

  • Specify a numeric value as the argument n.

  • Rows with n of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.

  • The difference between SUM and TOTAL is as follows.

    • When n includes integer type values only, SUM returns a value of integer (LONG) type, while TOTAL returns a value of floating point number (DOUBLE).
    • When n includes a floating point number type value, both of them return a value of floating point number (DOUBLE).
    • When n includes NULL only, SUM returns NULL, while TOTAL returns 0.

Example:

SELECT SUM(age) FROM employees;
Result: 205
SELECT TOTAL(age) FROM employees;
Result: 205.0
SELECT department, SUM(age) sum FROM employees GROUP BY department;
Result: 
  department   sum
  ------------+-----
  Development  102
  Research      31
  Sales         43
  (NULL)        29

# GROUP_CONCAT

Format GROUP_CONCAT( [DISTINCT | ALL] x [, separator] )

Return the character string in which the values of x are concatenated. Specify the separator to be concatenated as "separator". When not specified, ", " is used.

  • Specify the value of arbitrary types as the argument x.
    • A TIMESTAMP type argument is converted to the string representation of time 'YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.SSS(Z|±hh:mm)'(see TIMESTAMP function) and connected.
  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • The result is of a STRING type.

Example:

// Concatenate the name last_name with '/'
SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(last_name, '/') from employees;
Result:  Smith/Jones/Brown/Taylor/Smith
// Concatenate the name "first_name" for each department "department"
SELECT department, GROUP_CONCAT(first_name) group_concat from employees GROUP BY(department);
Result: 
   department    group_concat
  -------------+--------------
   Development  William,James
   Research     Mary
   Sales        John,Richard
   (NULL)       Lisa
SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(age, ' + ') FROM employees;
Result: 43 + 59 + 31 + 29 + 43

# STDDEV_SAMP

Format STDDEV_SAMP( [DISTINCT | ALL] x)

Returns the sample standard deviation.

  • Specify a numeric value for the argument x.
    • Expressions cannot contain aggregate functions or WINDOW functions/OVER clauses.
  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • If x is 1, returns NULL.
  • The result is of a DOUBLE type.

Example:

SELECT department, STDDEV_SAMP(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_stddev from employees GROUP BY department;
Result:
   department    enrollment_period_stddev
  -------------+--------------------------
   Development  9.121677477306465
   Research     (NULL)
   Sales        6.010407640085654
   (NULL)       (NULL)

# STDDEV/STDDEV0

Format STDDEV( [DISTINCT | ALL] x)
Format STDDEV0( [DISTINCT | ALL] x)

Returns the sample standard deviation. STDDEV is an alias of the STDDEV_SAMP function.

  • Specify a numeric value for the argument x.
    • Expressions cannot contain aggregate functions or WINDOW functions/OVER clauses.
  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • The result is of a DOUBLE type.
  • The differences between STDDEV and STDDEV0 are as follows:
    • STDDEV returns NULL if x is 1,
    • while STDDEV0 returns 0 when x is 1.

Example:

SELECT department, STDDEV(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_stddev from employees GROUP BY department;
Result:
   department    enrollment_period_stddev
  -------------+--------------------------
   Development  9.121677477306465
   Research     (NULL)
   Sales        6.010407640085654
   (NULL)       (NULL)
SELECT department, STDDEV0(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_stddev from employees GROUP BY department;
Result:
   department    enrollment_period_stddev
  -------------+--------------------------
   Development  9.121677477306465
   Research     (NULL)
   Sales        6.010407640085654
   (NULL)       0.0
SELECT STDDEV(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_stddev from employees WHERE age >= 55;
Result:
   enrollment_period_stddev
  --------------------------
   (NULL)
SELECT STDDEV0(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_stddev from employees WHERE age >= 55;
Result:
   enrollment_period_stddev
  --------------------------
   0.0

# STDDEV_POP

Format STDDEV_POP( [DISTINCT | ALL] x)

Returns the population standard deviation.

  • Specify a numeric value for the argument x.
    • Expressions cannot contain aggregate functions or WINDOW functions/OVER clauses.
  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • The result is of a DOUBLE type.

Example:

SELECT department, STDDEV_POP(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_stddev from employees GROUP BY department;
Result:
   department    enrollment_period_stddev
  -------------+--------------------------
   Development  6.450000000000002
   Research     (NULL)
   Sales        4.25
   (NULL)       0.0

# VAR_SAMP

Format VAR_SAMP( [DISTINCT | ALL] x)

Returns the sample variance.

  • Specify a numeric value for the argument x.
    • Expressions cannot contain aggregate functions or WINDOW functions/OVER clauses.
  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • If x is 1, returns NULL.
  • The result is of a DOUBLE type.

Example:

SELECT department, VAR_SAMP(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_variance from employees GROUP BY department;
Result:
   department    enrollment_period_variance
  -------------+----------------------------
   Development  83.20500000000004
   Research     (NULL)
   Sales        36.125
   (NULL)       (NULL)

# VARIANCE/VARIANCE0

Format VARIANCE([DISTINCT | ALL] x)
Format VARIANCE0([DISTINCT | ALL] x)

Returns the sample variance. VARIANCE is an alias of the VAR_SAMP function.

  • Specify a numeric value for the argument x.
    • Expressions cannot contain aggregate functions or WINDOW functions/OVER clauses.
  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • The result is of a DOUBLE type.
  • The differences between VARIANCE and VARIANCE0 are as follows:
    • VARIANCE returns NULL if x is 1,
    • while VARIANCE0 returns 0 if x is 1.

Example:

SELECT department, VARIANCE(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_variance from employees GROUP BY department;
Result:
   department    enrollment_period_variance
  -------------+----------------------------
   Development  83.20500000000004
   Research     (NULL)
   Sales        36.125
   (NULL)       (NULL)
SELECT department, VARIANCE0(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_variance from employees GROUP BY department;
Result:
   department    enrollment_period_variance
  -------------+----------------------------
   Development  83.20500000000004
   Research     (NULL)
   Sales        36.125
   (NULL)       0.0
SELECT VARIANCE(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_variance from employees WHERE age >= 55;
Result:
   enrollment_period_variance
  ----------------------------
   (NULL)
SELECT VARIANCE0(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_variance from employees WHERE age >= 55;
Result:
   enrollment_period_variance
  ----------------------------
   0.0

# VAR_POP

Format VAR_POP( [DISTINCT | ALL] x)

Returns the population variance.

  • Specify a numeric value for the argument x.
    • Expressions cannot contain aggregate functions or WINDOW functions/OVER clauses.
  • Rows with x of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • The result is of a DOUBLE type.

Example:

SELECT department, VAR_POP(enrollment_period) enrollment_period_variance from employees GROUP BY department;
Result:
   department    enrollment_period_variance
  -------------+----------------------------
   Development  41.60250000000002
   Research     (NULL)
   Sales        18.0625
   (NULL)       0.0

# MEDIAN

Format MEDIAN(n)

Returns the median of n. If the number of rows to be calculated is even, returns the average value of the two rows near the center.

  • Specify a numeric value as the argument n.
    • Subqueries cannot be specified.
  • Rows with n of NULL value are excluded from the calculation.
  • The type of the result is a LONG type when n includes only integers, a DOUBLE type when n includes a floating point number.
  • Multiple use of the WINDOW function/OVER clause in the same SELECT clause, and simultaneous use of the WINDOW function/OVER clause and the MEDIAN function are not allowed.

Example:

SELECT MEDIAN(age) FROM employees;
Result: 43
SELECT department, MEDIAN(age) mn FROM employees GROUP BY department ORDER BY mn DESC;
Result:
  department   mn
  ------------+-----
  Development  51
  Sales        43
  Research     31
  (NULL)       29

# Mathematical functions

# ABS

Format ABS(n)

Return the absolute value of n. For a positive number, the value as it is is returned and for a negative number, the value multiplied by -1 is returned.

  • Specify a numeric value as the argument n.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • Cause an overflow error, when the value is an integer of -263.
  • The type of the result is a LONG type when n includes only integers, a DOUBLE type when n includes a floating point number.

Example:

SELECT first_name, ABS(age) abs FROM employees;
Result:
  first_name    abs
  ------------+-------
  John          43
  William       59
  Richard       (NULL)
  Mary          31
  Lisa          29
  James         43

# ROUND

Format ROUND(n [, m])

Round off. Returns the value of n rounded to m decimal places.

  • Specify a row of a numeric type as the argument n.
  • Specify an integer greater than or equal to 0 as the argument m. When no value is specified for m, the default value 0 is specified.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • The type of the result is a LONG type when n includes only integers, a DOUBLE type when n includes a floating point number.

Example:

SELECT first_name, ROUND(enrollment_period, 0) round FROM employees;
Result:
  first_name    round
  ------------+-------
  John          16.0
  William       23.0
  Richard        7.0
  Mary          (NULL)
  Lisa           5.0
  James         10.0

# RANDOM

Format RANDOM()

Return a random number. A random number is an integer of the range from -263 to 263-1.

  • The result is of a LONG type.

Example:

SELECT first_name, RANDOM() random FROM employees;
Result:
  first_name    random
  ------------+----------------------
  John          -3382931580741820003
  William       -7362300487836647182
  Richard        8834368641333737477
  Mary          -8544493602797564288
  Lisa          -7727163797274657674
  James          6751560427268247384

# MAX/MIN

Format MAX(x1, x2 [,...])

Return the greatest value among the values xN.

Format MIN(x1, x2 [,...])

Return the smallest value among the values xN.

Example:

SELECT first_name, age, enrollment_period, MAX(age, enrollment_period) max FROM employees;
Result:
  first_name    age    enrollment_period   max
  ------------+-------+------------------+--------
  John          43      15.5               43.0
  William       59      23.2               59.0
  Richard       (NULL)   7.0               (NULL)
  Mary          31      (NULL)             (NULL)
  Lisa          29       4.9               29.0
  James         43      10.3               43.0

# LOG

Format LOG(n, m)

Returns the logarithm of m with base n.

  • For the argument n, specify a numeric value greater than 0 and other than 1.
  • For the argument m, specify a numeric value greater than 0.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • The result is of a DOUBLE type.

Example:

SELECT LOG(2, 8);
Result: 3.0
SELECT LOG(0.5, 2.0);
Result: -1.0

# SQRT

Format SQRT(n)

Returns the positive square root of n.

  • Specify a numeric value of 0 or greater as the argument n.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • The result is of a DOUBLE type.

Example:

SELECT SQRT(4);
Result:2.0
SELECT SQRT(16.0);
Result:4.0

# TRUNC

Format TRUNC(n [,m])

In the case of m>=0, return the value of n, rounded down to the nearest m digits.

In the case of m< 0, return the value of n, rounded down to the nearest -m digits.

  • Specify a numeric value as the argument n.
  • Specify an integer as the argument m. When no value is specified for m, the default value 0 is specified. A value greater than 309 or less than -308 cannot be specified.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • The result type is LONG if an integer is specified for the argument n and DOUBLE if a decimal is specified.

Example:

SELECT TRUNC(123.4567);
Result: 123.0
SELECT TRUNC(123.4567, 2);
Result: 123.45
SELECT TRUNC(123.4567, -1);
Result: 120.0
SELECT TRUNC(123.4567, -3);
Result: 0.0
SELECT TRUNC(1234567, -2);
Result: 1234500

# HEX_TO_DEC

Format HEX_TO_DEC(str)

Converts hexadecimal string str to decimal number type.

  • Specify a character string type value (0-9, a-f, A-F) that can be converted to hexadecimal for the argument str.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • The result is of a LONG type.

Example:

SELECT HEX_TO_DEC('FF');
Result: 255
SELECT HEX_TO_DEC('10');
Result: 16

# Character functions

# LENGTH

Format LENGTH(str)

Return the length of the character string str.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument str.
  • Unicode code point of a character string is used.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • The result is of a LONG type.
  • A BLOB type can also be specified for an argument.

Example:

SELECT last_name, LENGTH(last_name) length FROM employees;
Result:
  last_name     length
  ------------+----------------------
  Smith         5
  Jones         5
  Brown         5
  Taylor        6
  (NULL)        (NULL)
  Smith         5

# LOWER

Format LOWER(str)

Convert all the alphabet of the character string str to lowercases.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument str.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • The result is of a character string type.
  • Unicode characters other than ASCII alphabetic characters are not converted.

Example:

SELECT last_name, LOWER(last_name) lower FROM employees;
Result:
  last_name     lower
  ------------+----------------------
  Smith         smith
  Jones         jones
  Brown         brown
  Taylor        taylor
  (NULL)        (NULL)
  Smith         smith

# UPPER

Format UPPER(str)

Convert all the alphabet of the character string str to uppercases.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument str.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • The result is of a character string type.
  • Unicode characters, such as Cyrille characters, other than ASCII alphabetic characters are not converted.

Example:

SELECT last_name, UPPER(last_name) upper FROM employees;
Result:
  last_name     upper
  ------------+----------------------
  Smith         SMITH
  Jones         JONES
  Brown         BROWN
  Taylor        TAYLOR
  (NULL)        (NULL)
  Smith         SMITH

# SUBSTR

Format SUBSTR(str, index [, length])

Cut out a part of a character string. from the character on the starting position, indicated by "index" up to the length specified by "length".

  • Specify character string type values for the argument str.
  • Specify an integer, 1 or larger, as the argument index. The starting position at the beginning of a character string is 1.
  • When the argument length is not specified, the character strings up to the end of str is cut out.
  • Return NULL, when the str value is NULL.
  • The result is of a character string type.
  • A BLOB type can also be specified for an argument.

Example:

SELECT SUBSTR('abcdefg', 3);
Result:cdefg
SELECT SUBSTR('abcdefg', 3, 2);
Result:cd

# REPLACE

Format REPLACE(str, search_str, replacement_str)

Replace a character string. In the character string str, replace all the parts matching the character string search_str with replacement_str.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument search_str, replacement_str.
  • Return NULL, when the str value is NULL.
  • The result is of a character string type.

Example:

SELECT REPLACE('abcdefabc', 'abc', '123');
Result:123def123

# INSTR

Format INSTR(str, search_str [, offset] [, occurrence])

Search for character string search_str in the character string str, and return its starting position. Return 0, when not found. Return 0, when not found.

  • Specify a string type or BLOB type value for the arguments str and search_str. The values of the same data type must be specified for str and search_str. For the offset and occurrence arguments, specify a LONG value.
  • For string type, it is calculated in Unicode code point unit, and for BLOB type, it is calculated in byte unit.
  • offset indicates the position where the search starts: for a positive value, the search starts from the front; for a negative value, the search starts from the rear end; when 0 is specified, 0 is returned meaning no match.
  • occurrence indicates the number of matches: the search is repeated the specified number of times and the last matched position is returned. when 0 is specified, 0 is returned meaning no match.
  • Return NULL, when either of the value of the arguments is NULL.
  • The result is of a LONG type.

Example:

SELECT INSTR('abcdef', 'cd');
Result:3
SELECT INSTR('abcdef', 'gh');
Result:0
SELECT INSTR('abcabcabcde', 'ab', 2, 2);
Result: 7
SELECT INSTR('abcabcabcde', 'ab', -1, 2);
Result: 4

# LIKE

------ -----------------------------------------------
Format LIKE(pattern_str, str [, escape_str])

Search the character string on the right. Return true, when the character string str matches the match pattern pattern_str. Return false, when no match was found. The following two wild cards are available for a match pattern.

Wild card Meaning
_ Any one character
% Any character with zero or more character strings

Specify the escape character escape_str when searching for the character _ or % in str containing the wildcard character _ or %. If a escape character is specified before the wild card character, it will no longer be interpreted as a wild card.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument str, pattern_str ,escape_str.
  • Return NULL, when either of the value of the arguments is NULL.
  • Uppercase and lowercase characters are not distinguished.
  • The result is of a BOOL type.

Example:

SELECT last_name, LIKE('%mi%', last_name) like_name FROM employees;
Result:
  last_name     like_name
  ------------+----------------------
  Smith         true
  Jones         false
  Brown         false
  Taylor        false
  (NULL)        (NULL)
  Smith         true
SELECT LIKE('%C%E%',  'ABC%DEF');
Result:true
SELECT LIKE('%C@%E%', 'ABC%DEF', '@');
Result:false
SELECT LIKE('%C@%D%', 'ABC%DEF', '@');
Result:true

# GLOB

Format GLOB(pattern_str, str)

Search the character string on the right. Return true, when the character string str matches the match pattern pattern_str. Return false, when no match was found. The following wild cards are available for a match pattern.

Wild card Meaning
? Any one character
* Any character with zero or more character strings
[abc] Match any of the letters a, b or c
[a-e] Match any of the letters from a to e
  • Specify character string type values for the argument str, pattern_str.
  • Return NULL, when either of the value of the arguments is NULL.
  • Uppercase and lowercase characters are distinguished.
  • The result is of a BOOL type.

Example:

SELECT GLOB('*[BA]AB?D', 'AABCD');
Result:true

# TRIM

Format TRIM(str [, trim_str])

Delete all the characters of character string trim_str from both ends of the character string str.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument str and trim_str.
  • Delete all the characters contained in the argument trim_str. When no value is specified, spaces are deleted from both ends of str.
  • The result is of a character string type.

Example:

SELECT TRIM(' ABC ');
Result: ABC (no space at both ends)
SELECT TRIM('ABCAA', 'BA');
Result: C

# LTRIM

Format LTRIM(str [, trim_str])

Delete all the characters of character string trim_str from the left end of the character string str.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument str and trim_str.
  • Delete all the characters contained in the argument trim_str. When no value is specified, spaces are deleted from the left end of str.
  • The result is of a character string type.

Example:

SELECT TRIM(' ABC ');
Result: ABC (no space at the left end)
SELECT TRIM('ABCAA', 'BA');
Result: BCAA

# RTRIM

Format RTRIM(str [, trim_str])

Delete all the characters of character string trim_str from the right end of the character string str.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument str and trim_str.
  • Delete all the characters contained in the argument trim_str. When no value is specified, spaces are deleted from the right end of str.
  • The result is of a character string type.

Example:

SELECT RTRIM(' ABC ');
Result: ABC (no space at the right end)
SELECT RTRIM('ABCAA', 'A');
Result: ABC

# QUOTE

Format QUOTE(x)

Returns a character string containing the value of x enclosed in single quotes.

  • For the argument x, specify a value of a character string type, a numeric type, a TIMESTAMP type, and a BLOB type value.
    • For the string type, single quotes contained in the string are escaped into two single quotes ''.
    • For the numeric type, a numeric value is returns as it is. It is not enclosed in single quotes.
    • A TIMESTAMP type argument is converted to the string representation of time 'YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.SSS(Z|±hh:mm)' (see TIMESTAMP function). It is not enclosed in single quotes.
    • For the BLOB type, return the character string X'BLOB type value'.
    • The result is of a character string type.

Example:

SELECT QUOTE(last_name) last_name, QUOTE(age) age FROM employees;
Result:
  last_name     age
  ------------+-------
  'Smith'       43
  'Jones'       59
  'Brown'       (NULL)
  'Taylor'      31
  (NULL)        29
  'Smith'       43
SELECT QUOTE(RANDOMBLOB(4));
Result: X'A45EA28D'
// The value of column "value" is a character string "Today's news."
SELECT value, QUOTE(value) FROM testcontainer;
Result:
   value            QUOTE(value)
  ---------------+-------------------
   Today's news     'Today''s news'

# UNICODE

Format UNICODE(str)

Returns the UNICODE code point of the first character of the string str.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument str.
  • The result is of a LONG type.

Example:

SELECT last_name, UNICODE(last_name) unicode FROM employees;
Result:
  last_name     unicode
  ------------+----------------------
  Smith         83
  Jones         74
  Brown         66
  Taylor        84
  (NULL)        (NULL)
  Smith         83

# CHAR

Format CHAR(x1 [, x2, ... , xn])

Returns a concatenated character string of characters with Unicode code point value xn.

  • Specify a Unicode code point value for an argument xn.
  • The result is of a STRING type.

Example:

SELECT CHAR(83, 84, 85);
Result: STU

# PRINTF

Format PRINTF(format [, x1, x2, ..., xn])

Return the converted character string according to the specified format "format". A format equivalent to the printf function of the standard C libraries can be used. There are two other formats as below.

Format Description
%q A single quote in a character string is escaped to two single quotes ''.
%Q A single quote in a character string is escaped to two single quotes ''.
Enclose both ends of the character string by single quotes.

Example:

SELECT enrollment_period, PRINTF('%.2f', enrollment_period) printf FROM employees;
Result:
  enrollment_period   printf
  ------------------+-----------
  15.5                15.50
  23.2                23.20
   7.0                 7.00
  (NULL)               0.00
   4.9                 4.90
  10.3                10.30

# TRANSLATE

Format TRANSLATE(str, search_str, replacement_str)

Replace a character string. Among the character string str, the characters matched the character string search_str is replaced by the characters of character string replacement_str in the same position as search_str. When replacement_str is shorter than search_str, thus having no characters to substitute in the part longer than replacement_str, the characters to be replaced will be deleted.

  • Specify character string type values for the argument search_str, replacement_str.
  • Return NULL, when the result value is NULL.
  • The result is of a character string type.

Example:

SELECT TRANSLATE('abcde', 'ace', '123');
Result:1b2d3
SELECT TRANSLATE('abcdeca', 'ace', '123');
Result: 1b2d321
SELECT TRANSLATE('abcde', 'ac', '123');
Result: 1b2de
SELECT TRANSLATE('abcde', 'ace', '12');
Result: 1b2d
SELECT TRANSLATE('abcde', 'AB', '123');
Result: abcde
SELECT TRANSLATE('abcde', 'abc', '');
Result: de

# Time functions

# NOW

Format NOW()

Returns the current time value.

  • If the time zone is specified at the time of connection, the offset calculated value is returned.
  • The result is of a TIMESTAMP type.

Example:

SELECT NOW();
Result: 2019-09-17T04:07:31.825Z
SELECT NOW();
Result: 2019-09-17T13:09:20.918+09:00

# TIMESTAMP

Format TIMESTAMP(timestamp_string [, timezone])

Convert the string representation of time to TIMESTAMP type.

  • In the argument timestamp_string, specify a character string in the following format as a character string representation of time.

    • YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ
    • YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.SSSZ
    • YYYY-MM-DD
    • hh:mm:ss
    Notation Item The range of value
    YYYY Year (A.D.) 1970-
    MM Month 1 to 12
    DD Day 1 to 31
    hh Time (24-hour notation) 0 to 23
    mm Minute 0 to 59
    ss Second 0 to 59
    SSS Millisecond 0 to 999
    Z Time zone Z
  • For the timezone argument, specify the time zone (Z|±hh:mm|±hhmm), not required when time zone information is included in timestamp_string. An error is returned if the specified values are inconsistent.

  • If the time zone is specified at the time of connection, the offset calculated value is returned.

  • The result is of a TIMESTAMP type.

  • Use CAST for the inverse conversion of TIMESTAMP function (conversion from TIMESTAMP type to string type).

    • CAST(timestamp AS STRING)

Example:

// Search for a row with the value of column date (TIMESTAMP type) newer than time '2018-12-01T10: 30: 00Z'
SELECT * FROM timeseries WHERE date > TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:30:00Z');

# TIMESTAMP_ADD

Format TIMESTAMP_ADD(time_unit, timestamp, duration [, timezone])

The value obtained by adding the period "duration" (unit: time_umit) to time period "timestamp" is returned.

  • Specify a TIMESTAMP type value for the argument timestamp.
  • Specify an integer for an argument duration. Subtract from the time point, when a negative number is specified.
  • Specify one of the following identifiers for the argument time_unit:
    • YEAR | MONTH | DAY | HOUR | MINUTE | SECOND | MILLISECOND
  • For the timezone argument, specify the time zone (Z|±hh:mm|±hhmm),
  • If the calculated day of the month does not exist as a result of adding a year or a month, the day is rounded to the last day of the month. For example, if one month is added to May 31, the result will be rounded to June 30 because June 31 does not exist.
  • If the time zone is specified at the time of connection, the offset calculated value is returned.
  • The result is of a TIMESTAMP type.
  • TIMESTAMPADD can also be used as a function alias.

Example:

Add ten days to time period '2018-12-01T11:22:33.444Z'.
SELECT TIMESTAMP_ADD(DAY, TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T11:22:33.444Z'), 10);
Result: 2018-12-11T11:22:33.444Z
SELECT TIMESTAMP_ADD(MONTH, TIMESTAMP('2019-05-31T01:23:45.678Z'), 1);
Result: 2019-06-30T01:23:45.678Z
SELECT TIMESTAMP_ADD(MONTH, TIMESTAMP('2019-05-31T01:23:45.678Z'), 1, '-02:00');
Result: 2019-07-01T01:23:45.678Z

# TIMESTAMP_DIFF

Format TIMESTAMP_DIFF(time_unit, timestamp1, timestamp2 [, timezone])

Returns the difference of timestamp1 and timestamp2 (timestamp1-timestamp2) as a value expressed in the time unit "time_unit". When a time difference is represented in time units, the decimal places are rounded off.

  • Specify a TIMESTAMP type value for the argument timestamp1 and timestamp2.
  • Specify one of the following identifiers for the argument time_unit: Instead of calculating the difference only in the unit specified by the identifier, the unit less than the identifier is also used in the calculation. For example, if MONTH is specified and 2019/09/30 is compared with 2019/10/02, the output will be 0 instead of 1 because 2 days of 0 months will be the difference.
    • YEAR | MONTH | DAY | HOUR | MINUTE | SECOND | MILLISECOND
  • For the timezone argument, specify the time zone (Z|±hh:mm|±hhmm),
  • If the time zone is specified at the time of connection, the offset calculated value is used for the calculation of the difference.
  • The result is of a LONG type.
  • TIMESTAMPDIFF can also be used as a function alias.

Example:


// Time unit: Month
SELECT TIMESTAMPDIFF(MONTH, TIMESTAMP('2018-12-11T10:30:15.555Z'), TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:00:00.000Z'));
Result: 0
Time unit: Day
SELECT TIMESTAMPDIFF(DAY,   TIMESTAMP('2018-12-11T10:30:15.555Z'), TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:00:00.000Z'));
Result: 10
SELECT TIMESTAMP_DIFF(DAY,   TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T11:00:00.000Z'), TIMESTAMP('2018-12-11T10:30:15.555Z'));
Result:-9
// Time unit: Time point
SELECT TIMESTAMPDIFF(HOUR,  TIMESTAMP('2018-12-11T10:30:15.555Z'), TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:00:00.000Z'));
Result: 240
// Time unit: Minute
SELECT TIMESTAMPDIFF(MINUTE, TIMESTAMP('2018-12-11T10:30:15.555Z'), TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:00:00.000Z'));
Result: 14430
// Here is an example where the result changes depending on the time zone. 
SELECT TIMESTAMP_DIFF(MONTH, MAKE_TIMESTAMP(2019, 8, 1), MAKE_TIMESTAMP(2019, 6, 30), 'Z');
Result: 2
SELECT TIMESTAMP_DIFF(MONTH, MAKE_TIMESTAMP(2019, 8, 1), MAKE_TIMESTAMP(2019, 6, 30), '-01:00');
Result: 1

# TO_TIMESTAMP_MS

Format TO_TIMESTAMP_MS(milliseconds)

Return the time point obtained by adding the value of argument "milliseconds" as millisecond, to the time point'1970-01-01T00:00:00.000Z'.

This function is an inverse conversion of TO_EPOCH_MS function.

  • Specify an integer for the argument "milliseconds".
  • If the time zone is specified at the time of connection, the offset calculated value is returned.
  • The result is of a TIMESTAMP type.

Example:

SELECT TO_TIMESTAMP_MS(1609459199999);
Result: 2020-12-31T23:59:59.999Z

# TO_EPOCH_MS

Format TO_EPOCH_MS(timestamp)

Return the lapsed time (in milliseconds) from the time '1970-01-01T00:00:00.000Z' to the time "timestamp".

This function is an inverse conversion of TO_EPOCH_MS function.

  • Specify a TIMESTAMP type value for the argument timestamp.
  • The result is of a LONG type.

Example:

SELECT TO_EPOCH_MS(TIMESTAMP('2020-12-31T23:59:59.999Z'));
Result: 1609459199999
SELECT TO_EPOCH_MS(TIMESTAMP('2020-12-31T23:59:59.999+09:00'));
Result: 1609426799999

# EXTRACT

Format EXTRACT(time_field, timestamp [, timezone])

Retrieve the value of time field "time_field" from the time "timestamp". The time will be the value of UTC.

  • Specify a TIMESTAMP type value for the argument timestamp.
  • Specify one of the following identifiers for the argument time_field:
    • YEAR | MONTH | DAY | HOUR | MINUTE | SECOND | MILLISECOND | DAY_OF_WEEK | DAY_OF_YEAR
      • DAY_OF_WEEK is from Sunday, as 0, to Saturday, as 6.
      • DAY_OF_YEAR is from January first, as 1, to December 31th, as 365 or 366.
  • For the timezone argument, specify the time zone (Z|±hh:mm|±hhmm),
  • If the time zone is specified at the time of connection, the offset calculated value is returned. If it is also specified in the argument timezone, the one specified in the argument will be used.
  • The result is of a LONG type.

Example:

// Calculate the value of the year, the day, and the millisecond of time point '2018-12-01T10:30:02.392Z'.
// The value of the year
SELECT EXTRACT(YEAR, TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:30:02.392Z'));
Result: 2018
SELECT EXTRACT(DAY, TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:30:02.392Z'));
// The value of the day
Result: 1
// The value of the millisecond
SELECT EXTRACT(MILLISECOND, TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:30:02.392Z'));
Result: 392
// Consider the time zone. 
SELECT EXTRACT(HOUR, TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:30:02.392Z'), '+09:00');
Result: 19

# STRFTIME

Format STRFTIME(format, timestamp [, modifier,...])

Return a time converted to a string according to the specified format.

  • Specify the following in the format argument to extract time information.
Format Description
%Y Extract the year in YYYY format.
%m Extract the month in MM format.
%d Extract the day in DD format.
%H Extract the time in hh format.
%M Extract the minute in mm format.
%S Extract the second in ss format.
%3f Extract millisecond in SSS format.
%z Extract the time zone in ± hh:mm format.
%w Extracts the day of the week in D format (0 to 6): from Sunday, as 0, to Saturday, as 6.
%W Extracts the number of the week of the year in DD format (from 00 to 53). The first Monday is considered to be in the first week, and days before that are considered to be in the 0th week.
%j Extract the number of days from January first in DDD format (001 to 366).
%c Extract the time in the format YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss[.SSS](Z
%% Output % as a character.
  • Specify a TIMESTAMP type value for the argument timestamp.
  • For the timezone argument, specify the time zone (Z|±hh:mm|±hhmm),
  • The result is of a STRING type.

Example:


SELECT STRFTIME('%c', TIMESTAMP('2019-06-19T14:15:01.123Z'));
Result: 2019-06-19T14:15:01.123Z
SELECT STRFTIME('%H:%M:%S%z', TIMESTAMP('2019-06-19T14:15:01.123Z'), '+09:00');
Result: 23:15:01+09:00
SELECT STRFTIME('%W', TIMESTAMP('2019-01-19T14:15:01.123Z'));
Result: 02

# MAKE_TIMESTAMP

Format MAKE_TIMESTAMP(year, month, day [, timezone])
MAKE_TIMESTAMP(year, month, day, hour, min, sec [, timezone])

Generate and return a TIMESTAMP type value.

  • If the hour, min, and sec arguments are not specified, it is assumed that all 0 have been specified.
  • The argument sec can be specified in milliseconds. The value less than a millisecond is rounded, possibly causing a floating point calculation error.
  • For the timezone argument, specify the time zone (Z|±hh:mm|±hhmm),
  • The result is of a TIMESTAMP type.

Example:


SELECT MAKE_TIMESTAMP(2019, 9, 19);
Result: 2019-09-19T00:00:00.000Z
SELECT MAKE_TIMESTAMP(2019, 9, 19, 10, 30, 15.123, '+09:00');
Result: 2019-09-19T01:30:15.123Z

# TIMESTAMP_TRUNC

Format TIMESTAMP_TRUNC(field, timestamp [, timezone])

Truncates the time information.

  • Specify one of the following identifiers for the argument field:
    • YEAR | MONTH | DAY | HOUR | MINUTE | SECOND | MILLISECOND
  • Specify a TIMESTAMP type value for the argument timestamp.
  • For the timezone argument, specify the time zone (Z|±hh:mm|±hhmm),

Example:


SELECT TIMESTAMP_TRUNC(HOUR, MAKE_TIMESTAMP(2019, 9, 19, 10, 30, 15.123));
Result: 2019-09-19T10:00:00.000Z
SELECT TIMESTAMP_TRUNC(DAY, MAKE_TIMESTAMP(2019, 5, 15), '-01:00');
Result: 2019-05-14T01:00:00.000Z

# WINDOW function

# ROW_NUMBER

Format ROW_NUMBER() OVER ( [PARTITION BY expression_1] [ORDER BY expression_2 ] )

Assign a unique serial number to the resulting rows.

  • Used with the OVER clause. See OVER clause for details.

Example:

SELECT ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY department ORDER BY age) no, first_name, age, department FROM employees;
Result:
  no   first_name   age      department
  ----+------------+--------+-------------
  1    James        43       Development
  2    William      59       Development
  1    Mary         31       Research
  1    John         43       Sales
  2    Richard      (NULL)   Sales
  1    Lisa         29       (NULL)

# Other functions

# COALESCE

Format COALESCE(x1, x2 [,..., xn])

Return the value of the first argument that is not NULL in the specified argument xn.

  • Specify the same type value for the argument xn. There are some different types that can be specified. Refer to CASE for the allowed combination of types.

  • Return NULL, when all argument values are NULL.

Example:

SELECT last_name, COALESCE(last_name, 'XXX') coalesce FROM employees;
Result:
  last_name     coalesce
  ------------+----------------------
  Smith         Smith
  Jones         Jones
  Brown         Brown
  Taylor        Taylor
  (NULL)        XXX
  Smith         Smith
SELECT age, COALESCE(age, -1) coalesce FROM employees;
Result:
  age       coalesce
  --------+-----------
  43         43
  59         59
  (NULL)     -1
  31         31
  29         29
  43         43

# IFNULL

Format IFNULL(x, y)

Return the value of the first argument that is not NULL among the specified arguments x and y. The IFNULL function is equivalent to the COALESCE function with two arguments.

  • Specify the value of the same type for the arguments x and y. There are some different types that can be specified. Refer to CASE for the allowed combination of types.
  • Return NULL, when all argument values are NULL.

Example:

SELECT last_name, IFNULL(last_name, 'XXX') ifnull FROM employees;
Result:
  last_name     ifnull
  ------------+----------------------
  Smith         Smith
  Jones         Jones
  Brown         Brown
  Taylor        Taylor
  (NULL)        XXX
  Smith         Smith
SELECT age, IFNULL(age, -1) ifnull FROM employees;
Result:
  age       coalesce
  --------+-----------
  43         43
  59         59
  (NULL)     -1
  31         31
  29         29
  43         43

# NULLIF

Format NULLIF(x, y)

Return NULL when two arguments are the same, return the first argument when the arguments are different.

  • Specify the value of the same type for the arguments x and y. There are some different types that can be specified. Refer to CASE for the allowed combination of types.

Example:

// Execute NULLIF with the value of value1 and value2.
SELECT value1, value2, NULLIF(value1, value2) nullif FROM container_sample;
Result: 
   value1   value2   nullif
  --------+--------+--------
      10       10    (NULL)
       5        0      5
   (NULL)       4    (NULL)
       3    (NULL)     3
   (NULL)   (NULL)   (NULL)
// Convert 0 to NULL to prevent division by zero errors in the calculation of value1 / value2
SELECT value1, value2, value1/NULLIF(value2, 0) division FROM container_sample;
Result: 
   value1   value2   division
  --------+--------+--------
      10       10      1
       5        0    (NULL)
   (NULL)       4    (NULL)
       3    (NULL)   (NULL)
   (NULL)   (NULL)   (NULL)

# RANDOMBLOB

Format RANDOMBLOB(size)

Return a BLOB type value (random number).

  • Specify the size (number of bytes) of a BLOB type value as an integer for the argument size .
  • The result is of a BLOB type.

Example:

// Generate a 10-byte blob value (random number)
SELECT HEX(RANDOMBLOB(10));
Result: 7C8C893C8087F07883AF

# ZEROBLOB

Format ZEROBLOB(size)

Return a BLOB type value (0x00).

  • Specify the size (number of bytes) of a BLOB type value as an integer for the argument size .
  • The result is of a BLOB type.

Example:

// Generate a 10-byte blob value (0x00).
SELECT HEX(ZEROBLOB(10));
Result: 00000000000000000000

# HEX

Format HEX(x)

Convert a BLOB type value to a hexadecimal type. Interpret the argument x as a BLOB type value, and return the character string (uppercase) converted into the hexadecimal.

  • Specify a BLOB type and a character string type for the argument x.
    • For a character string type argument, return the character string in which the Unicode code point of all the characters converted to hexadecimal.
  • The result is of a character string type.

Example:

SELECT HEX(RANDOMBLOB(2));
Result: E18D
SELECT first_name, HEX(first_name) hex FROM employees;
Result:
  first_name    hex
  ------------+----------------------
  John          4A6F686E
  William       57696C6C69616D
  Richard       52696368617264
  Mary          4D617279
  Lisa          4C697361
  James         4A616D6573

# TYPEOF

Format TYPEOF(x)

Return the character string indicating the data type of the value of x.

  • The correspondence between the data type and the string returned by the TYPEOF function is shown below.

    Data types Character string which TYPEOF function returns
    BOOL BOOL
    STRING STRING
    BYTE BYTE
    SHORT SHORT
    INTEGER INTEGER
    LONG LONG
    FLOAT FLOAT
    DOUBLE DOUBLE
    TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP
    GEOMETRY NULL
    BLOB BLOB
    ARRAY NULL
  • The result is of a character string type.

  • When a NULL value is specified, 'NULL' is returned.

Example:

SELECT TYPEOF(ABS(-10)) abs, TYPEOF(RANDOMBLOB(10)) randomblob,
    TYPEOF(TIMESTAMP('2018-12-01T10:30:02.392Z')) timestamp;
Result:
   abs    randomblob   timestamp
  ------+------------+-----------
   LONG   BLOB         TIMESTAMP

# Other syntaxes

# CAST

Format CAST(x AS data_type)

Convert the value x into the data type "data_type".

  • Specify the following values for argument "data_type" according to the converted data type.

    Converted data type Value for data_type
    BOOL BOOL
    STRING STRING
    BYTE BYTE
    SHORT SHORT
    INTEGER INTEGER
    LONG LONG
    FLOAT FLOAT
    DOUBLE DOUBLE
    TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP
    BLOB BLOB

# Convert to string type

Format CAST(x AS STRING)

Convert the argument x to a character string type.

The data types of the value which can be specified for x, and the converted values are as follows.

Data type of x Value converted to character string type
BOOL 'true' if true, 'false' if false
STRING Original value
BYTE
SHORT
INTEGER
LONG
FLOAT
DOUBLE
Value converted from a number to a character
TIMESTAMP Character string notation of time point 'YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.SSS(Z
BLOB A character string equivalent to the converted character string usingHEX function

# Convert to numeric type

Format CAST(x AS BYTE

Convert the argument x into a numeric type.

The data types of the value which can be specified for x, and the converted values are as follows.

Data type of x Value converted to numeric type
BOOL 1 if true, 0 if false
STRING The value converted from the character string to numerical value
BYTE
SHORT
INTEGER
LONG
FLOAT
DOUBLE
The numerical value converted to the specified numeric type
  • An error will occur if the converted number exceeds the range of numeric values specified in data_type.
// An error occurs if exceeding BYTE type range (-128 to 127) 
SELECT CAST(128 AS BYTE);
Result: error
// An error occurs if exceeding INTEGER type range (-2147483648-2147483647).
SELECT CAST('2147483648' AS INTEGER);
Result: error
  • When converted from floating-point type (FLOAT, DOUBLE) to integer type (BYTE, SHORT, INTEGER, LONG), the number of significant digits in the result may be reduced.
SELECT CAST(10.5 AS INTEGER);
Result: 10
  • The following character strings can be specified in the conversion from a character string type to a numeric type (case insensitive). An error will occur when character strings other than these are specified.
    • The character string containing a number, a sign (". "," - ", "+"), or "E"
    • "Inf" (signed data acceptable)
    • "Infinity" (signed data acceptable)
    • "NaN"
SELECT CAST('abc' AS INTEGER);
Result: error
SELECT CAST('-1.09E+10' AS DOUBLE);
Result: -1.09E10

# Convert to time type

Format CAST(x AS TIMESTAMP)

Convert the argument x to a time type. If the time zone is specified at the time of connection, that value is used for offset calculation.

The data types of the value which can be specified for x, and the converted values are as follows.

Data type of x Value converted to time type
STRING (character string notation of time 'YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.SSSZ') Equivalent to the value converted using the TIMESTAMP function
SELECT CAST('2018-12-01T10:30:00Z' AS TIMESTAMP);
Result: 2018-12-01T10:30:00.000Z
SELECT CAST('2018-12-01T10:30:00+09:00' AS TIMESTAMP);
Result: 2018-12-01T01:30:00.000Z

# Convert to BOOL type

Format CAST(x AS BOOL)

Convert the argument x to a BOOL type.

The data types of the value which can be specified for x, and the converted values are as follows.

Data type of x Value converted to time type
STRING True if 'true', false if 'false' (case insensitive)
BYTE
SHORT
INTEGER
LONG
False if 0, otherwise true

# Convert to BLOB type

Format CAST(x AS BLOB)

Convert the argument x to a BLOB type.

The data types of the value which can be specified for x, and the converted values are as follows.

Data type of x Value converted to BLOB type
STRING The value converted from character string as hexadecimal data to BLOB type

# CASE

Format CASE
WHEN condition1 THEN result1
[WHEN condition2 THEN result2]
...
[ELSE resultElse]
END

When the conditional expression conditionN is true, the value of corresponding resultN is returned. When all the conditional expressions are false or NULL, and if ELSE is specified, the value of resultElse will be returned. When ELSE is not specified, NULL is returned.

Format CASE x
WHEN value1 THEN result1
[WHEN value2 THEN result2]
...
[ELSE resultElse]
END

When the value of x is valueN, the value of corresponding resultN is returned. When the value of x is not equal to all values, and if ELSE is specified, the value of resultElse will be returned. When ELSE is not specified, NULL is returned.

Specify the same type value for resultN. There are some different types that can be specified.

  • If the arguments are of different types, only the combination of the following types can be calculated. Any other combinations will result in an error.

    Type of argument Type of argument Type of argument when calculating the two arguments
    SHORT BYTE LONG
    INTEGER BYTE, SHORT LONG
    LONG BYTE, SHORT, INTEGER LONG
    FLOAT BYTE, SHORT, INTEGER, LONG DOUBLE
    DOUBLE BYTE, SHORT, INTEGER, LONG, FLOAT DOUBLE

Example:

// Display the employee's age (30's, 40's, 50's, other than these)
SELECT id, first_name, age,
  CASE
    WHEN age > 50 THEN '50s'
    WHEN age > 40 THEN '40s'
    WHEN age > 30 THEN '30s'
    ELSE 'other'
  END AS period
FROM employees;
Result: 
 id   first_name   age     period
 ----+------------+-------+--------
 0    John          43      40s
 1    William       59      50s
 2    Richard      (NULL)   other
 3    Mary          31      30s
 4    Lisa          29      other
 5    James         43      40s
// Display a location according to their departments.
SELECT id, first_name, department,
  CASE department
    WHEN 'Sales' THEN 'Tokyo'
    WHEN 'Development' THEN 'Osaka'
    ELSE 'Nagoya'
  END AS location
FROM employees;
Result: 
 id   first_name   department    location
 ----+------------+-------------+---------
 0    John         Sales         Tokyo
 1    William      Development   Osaka
 2    Richard      Sales         Tokyo
 3    Mary         Research      Nagoya
 4    Lisa         (NULL)        Nagoya
 5    James        Development   Osaka

# Subquery

Subqueries can be specified in various parts of an SQL statemnt other than FROM and WHERE clauses. Some operation types for subqueries are also provided, which are explained in this section.

# IN

Return whether the specified value is included in the sub query execution result.

Syntax

| -------------------------------------- | | Expression 1 [NOT] IN ( sub_query ) |

Specifications

  • Return true when the value of expression_1 is included in the result of the sub query.
  • The result of a sub query must be data of one row.

Example:

// Display the information of the employee who belongs to the department of id=1 in the departments table from the employees table.
SELECT * FROM employees
WHERE department IN(
  SELECT department FROM departments
  WHERE id = 1
);
Result: 
  id   first_name   last_name   age     department    enrollment_period
  ----+------------+-----------+-------+-------------+-------------------
   1   William      Jones       59      Development   23.2
   5   James        Smith       43      Development   10.3

# EXISTS

Return whether the execution result of the sub query exists.

Syntax

[NOT] EXISTS( sub_query )

Specifications

  • Check whether the execution result of the sub query exists. Return true if the number of execution result is 1 or more, false if it is 0.

  • The result is of a BOOL type.

Example:

// Display the information of the employee who belongs to the department of id=1 in the departments table from the employees table.
SELECT * FROM employees
WHERE EXISTS(
   SELECT * FROM departments
   WHERE employees.department=departments.department AND departments.id=1
);
Result: 
  id   first_name   last_name   age     department    enrollment_period
  ----+------------+-----------+-------+-------------+-------------------
   1   William      Jones       59      Development   23.2
   5   James        Smith       43      Development   10.3

# Scalar sub query

Subquery which returns one result, which can be used for the result of a SELECT statement or for an expression.

Example:

SELECT id, first_name,
       (SELECT department FROM departments WHERE department_id=employees.department_id)
FROM employees;
Result: 
  id  first_name  department
  ---+-----------+-------------
   0  John        Sales
   1  William     Development
   2  Richard     Sales
   3  Mary        (NULL)
   4  Lisa        Marketing
   5  James       Development

# Placeholder

A prepared statement can describe a placeholder in SQL statements. A placeholder indicates the position of the parameter to be substituted when the statement is executed. The parameter number starts from 1.

The placeholder can use several forms for compatibility with other databases. However, the parameter number will be the already assigned parameter number + 1, regardless of which format is specified.

Format Description Example of description
? Format of a standard placeholder ?
?NNN NNN indicates a number. ?56
:AAAA AAAA indicates a character string. :name
@AAAA AAAA indicates a character string. @name

The placeholder must not start with $.

Example:

String sql = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE id > ? AND id != :exclude_id;";
PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement(sql);
pstmt.setInt(1, 100);  // 1: ?
pstmt.setInt(2, 253);  // 2: :exclude_id
ResultSet rs = pstmt.executeQuery();

# Comment

Comments can be written in a SQL command. Format: Description at the back of -- (2 hyphens) or enclose with /* */. A new line needs to be returned at the end of the comment.

SELECT * -- comment
FROM employees;
SELECT *
/*
  comment
*/
FROM employees;

# Hints

In GridDB, specifying the hints indicating the execution plan in the query makes it possible to control the execution plan without changing the SQL statement.

# Error handling

In the following cases, a syntax error occurs.

  • Multiple block comments for hints are described
  • The hint is described in the wrong position
  • There is a syntax error in the description of the hint phrase
  • Duplicate hint of the same class are specified for the same table

In the following case, a table specification error occurs:

  • The table specification of the hint phrase is incorrect

[Memo]

  • When a table specification error occurs, ignore the error hint phrase and execute the query using the others.
  • When a syntax error and a table specification error occur at the same time, a syntax error occurs.

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